Integration of Ideal Planning and Focus-Las Model to Determine the Crop Plan

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Assistant Professor of Agricultural Economics, Sistan and Baluchestan University

2 Ph.D. student of Agricultural Economics, Sistan and Baluchestan University


The agricultural sector plays an essential role in the national economy of each country. Today, methods used to determine the pattern of crop rotation with crop risk are often used to increase farmers' well-being and maximize their profits. In the present study, the aim of developing an optimal model of cultivating agricultural crops in risk conditions in Sistan province, Sistan and Baluchestan province, is based on the cross sectional data of 2016-2017 years.  For this purpose, the integrated model of goal programmin and the Focus-Loos model was developed. The results showed that in the lands of more than 3 hectares, the gross income in Zabol, Zahak and Hirmand regions was 1954567, 1324568 and 1245751 tomans, and Loss in Zabol and Hirmand region, respectively, were 351254 and 253698.45 USD per hectare, respectively And these results indicate that by increasing the area of aquaculture, farms will select production patterns with a few limited products, and the smaller the farm, the greater the variety of cultivated products will be to reduce the income risk. In all sample farms, the gross income earned is higher than the household's needs for basic needs and can make more investment with it. It is suggested that by implementing the policy of integrating small farms in the Sistan region, it will increase the gross income of farmers and also make optimal use of inputs.


Main Subjects

  1. Abbasian, P., Mahdavi-Amiri, N., & Fazlollahtabar, H. (2018). Multiple utility constrained multi-objective programs using Bayesian theory, Journal of Industrial Engineering International, 14(1), 111–118. (In Persian)
  2. Abdolaziz, F . (2007). Multiple objective programming and goal programming: New trends and applications            European, Journal of Operational Research, 177, 1520–1522. (In Persian)
  3. Ahmad Pour Borazjani, M., & Nikoi Dastjerdi, H. (2015). Determining Agricultural Plans for Organic Crops Production in Selected Areas of Kerman Province, Journal of Rural Development Strategies, 2(4), 455-475. (In Persian)
  4. Asad Pour, H., & Abazari, A. (2014). Determination of optimal crop cultivation program in Lalehabad district of Babol city using ideal linear programming model, Agricultural Economics and Development, 20 (87): 137-25. (In Persian)
  5. Azizi, J., & Yazdani, S. (2004). Determining the relative advantage of Iranian horticultural products. Journal of Agricultural Economics and Development, 41: 46-65. (In Persian)
  6. Chaves, P., Kojiri, T., & Yamashiki, Y. (2003). Optimization of storage reservoir considering water quantity and quality. Hydrological Processes, 17, 2769-2793.            
  7. Cole, S., Giné, X., & Vickery, J. (2017). How Does Risk Management Influence Production Decisions? Evidence from a Field Experiment, The Review of Financial Studies, 30(6), 1935–1970.
  8. Crimp, S. J., Zheng , B., Khimashia, N., Gobbett, D. L., Chapman, S., Howden, M., & Nicholls, N. (2016). Recent changes in southern Australian frost occurrence: implications for wheat production risk, Crop & Passture Science, 67 (8), 801-811.
  9. Daghighi, A., Nahvi, A., & Kim, U. (2017). Optimal Cultivation Pattern to Increase Revenue and Reduce Water Use: Application of Linear Programming to Arjan Plain in Fars Province, Agriculture, 7(9), 1-11.
  10. Davis, K. F., Rulli, M. C., Seveso, A., & D’Odorico. (2017). Increased food production and reduced water use through optimized crop distribution, Nature Geoscience, 10, 919–924.
  11. Derakhshan, M., Mohammadi, H., & Shirzadi Jahromi, M. H. (2007). Determination of Optimal Pattern of Integrated Harvesting of Crops with Emphasis on Production Risk in Fars Province, Crop Ecology (Modern Agricultural Knowledge), 3(8), 36-23. (In Persian)
  12. Djido, A., & Shiferaw, B. (2018). Patterns of labor productivity and income diversification – Empirical evidence from Uganda and Nigeria, World Development, 105, 416-427.
  13. Doppler, W., Salman, A. Z., Al-Karablieh, E. K., & Wolf, H. P. (2002). The impact of water price strategies on the allocation of irrigation water: The case of the Jordan Valley. J. of Agricultural Water Management, 55, 171- 182.  
  14. Filippi, C., Mansini, R., & Stevanato, E. (2017). Mixed integer linear programming models for optimal crop selection, Computers & Operations Research, 81, 26-39.
  15. Gomez, J. A. & Risog, L.  (2004). Irrigation water pricing: differential impacts on irrigated farms. Agricultural Economic. 31, 47-66.
  16. Gupta, S., Fügenschuh, A., Ali I. (2018). A Multi-Criteria Goal Programming Model to Analyze the Sustainable Goals of India. 10, 778.
  17. Hao L. N., Su X. L., & Singh V. P. (2018). Cropping pattern optimization considering uncertainty of water availability and water saving potential. Int J Agric & Biol Eng, 11 (1), 178–186.
  18. Hazel, B, R., & Norton, R, D. (1976). Mathematical Planning for Economic Analysis in Agriculture. F, Ramin Abjad Publications, 2002.
  19. Hocine, A., Kouaissah, N., Bettahar, S., & Benbouziane, M. (2018). Optimizing renewable energy portfolios under uncertainty: A multi-segment fuzzy goal programming approach, Renewable Energy, 129 (A), 540-552.
  20. Hoseini, A. S., Mehregan, N., & Ebrahimi, M. (2016). Determination of optimal crop pattern with emphasis on maximizing social benefits and net import of virtual water, Journal of Agricultural Economics Research, 8 (31), 144-123. (In Persian)
  21. Howitt, R. E., Medellin-Azuara, J. , MacEwan, D. , Lund, J. R. (2012). Calibrating disaggregate economic models of agricultural production and water management. Environmental Modeling & Software, 38: 244-258.
  22. Huka, H. Ruoja, C. and Mchopa, A. (2014) Price fluctuation of agricultural products and its impact on small scale farmers development: Case analysis from kilimanjaro tanzania. European Journal of Business and Management. 6 (36): 155-160.
  23. Kang S., Zeng X., Li F., Zhang L., & Guo P. (2010). Fuzzy Multi-Objective Linear Programming Applying To Crop Area Planning, Agricultural Water Management, 98:134-142.
  24. Li, Q. Q., Li, Y. P., & Huang, G. H. (2018). Risk aversion based interval stochastic programming approach for agricultural water management under uncertainty, Stochastic Environmental Research and Risk Assessment, 32 (3), 715–732.
  25. Li, S., Horváth, L. J., Pintér, L., Rounsevell, M. D. A., & Harrison, P. A . (2010). Modelling regional cropping patterns under scenarios of climate and socio-economic change in Hungary, Science of The Total Environment,  622–623, 1611-1620.
  26. Li, X., Kang, S., Niu, J., Du, T., Tong, L., Li, S., & Ding, R. (2017). Applying uncertain programming model to improve regional farming economic benefits and water productivity, Agricultural Water Management, 179,352-365.
  27. Mahmoudi, M., Khanjani, M., & Barani, Gh. A. (2016). Evaluation of Stability and Crop Pattern Determination by Multi-Purpose Mathematical Programming, Iranian Water Resources Research Journal, 10 (2), 73-65. (In Persian)
  28. Mahmoudi, N., & Sobouhi, M. (2007). Effects of Income Risk on Optimum Crop Pattern Selection (Case Study of Jaban Village of Damavand), 6th Iranian Conference on Agricultural Economics. (In Persian)
  29. Mansouri, H., & Kohansal, M. (2007). Determining the optimal cropping pattern based on two economic and environmental perspectives, Proceedings of the 6th Agricultural Economics Conference, Ferdowsi University. (In Persian)
  30. Mirzaei, Sh., Zakari Nia, M., Shahabi Far, M., & Sharifan, H. (2017). Determination of Optimum Cropping Pattern in Irrigation and Drainage Network of Golestan Dam Using Genetic Algorithm, Irrigation Science and Engineering, 40 (3), 190-181. (In Persian)
  31. Mosleh, Z., Salehi, M. H., Amini Fasakhodi, A., & Jafari, A. (2017). Sustainable allocation of agricultural lands and water resources using suitability analysis and mathematical multi-objective programming, Geoderma, 303, 52-59.
  32. Omrani, H., Valipour, M., & Emrouznejad, A. (2018). Using Weighted Goal Programming Model for Planning Regional Sustainable Development to Optimal Workforce Allocation: An Application for Provinces of Iran, Social Indicators Research, 1–29.
  33. Özkan,B., & Akcaoz,H. V. (2001) Game theory and its application to field crops in Antalya province. Turk. J. Agric, 26: 303-309.
  34. Parhizgari, A., Mozaffari, M., Parhizgari, R.,& Parhizgari, M. (2014). Utilization management and optimal allocation of water resources for determining agro-economic program of optimal cropping pattern in Rudbar Alamut area, Journal of Agriculture and Natural Resources, 18, 40-29. (In Persian)
  35. Porfirio, L. L., Newth, D., & Harman, I. N. (2017). Patterns of crop cover under future climates, Ambio, 46 (3), 265–276.
  36. Pour Srarkhi, H., Karimi, M., Alimohammadi Sarab, A., & Davari, K. (2017). Crop Planning Using Spatial Optimization Methods, Journal of Spatial Information Technology Engineering, 5 (2), 19-19.
  37. Rabani, R. (2017). Determination of optimal cropping pattern using multipurpose renewable programming (De Novo) and genetic algorithm in fuzzy environment: A case study, MSc thesis.
  38. Rastegaripour, F., & Sabouhi Sabouni, M. (2010). An optimization model for Kardeh reservoir operation using interval-parameter, multi-stage, stochastic programming. J. of Water and Wastewater, 75, 88-98. (In Persian)
  39. Rath A., Samantaray S., Biswal S., & Swain P. C. (2018). Application of Genetic Algorithm to Derive an Optimal Cropping Pattern, in Part of Hirakud Command, Progress in Computing, Analytics and Networking, 710, 711-721.
  40. Ravasizadeh, S., Ghorbani, Kh., & Yazdani, S. (2017). Application of Game Theory in Income Risk Management for Dry Crop Production in Kurdistan Province (Fourth Development Program Period until 2012), First International Conference and Third National Conference on Engineering and Environmental Management and Sustainable Natural Resources.
  41. Rees R. M., Griffiths B. S., & McVittie A. (2018). Sustainable Intensification of Agriculture: Impacts on Sustainable Soil Management, International Yearbook of Soil Law and Policy, 2017, pp 7-16.
  1. Romero, C. (2004). A general structure of achievement functions for a goal programming model. European Journal of Operational Research, 153, 675–686
  2. Romero, C., & T. Rehman. (2003). Multiple Criteria Analysis for Agricultural Decisions. Second Edition. Amsterdam: Elsevier Science B. V.
  1. Sajasi Ghidari., H. A., & Behrouz, Z. (2017). Analysis of the effects of drought-induced cultivation pattern change in rural areas on saffron attainment in rural areas of Zabrikhan, Quarterly Journal of Rural Development, 4 (1), 58-39. (In Persian)
  2. Saliani, T. (1996). Cultivation pattern design in development water resource plans. Agriculturedevelope and economic, 4 (91), 1-13. (In Persian)
  3. Statistics of Agricultural Jihad of Sistan and Baluchestan Province, (2017).
  4. Talebi, B. (2012). Model of Optimum Water Resources Utilization in Critical Conditions (Drought, Flood and Unexpected Accidents), MSc thesis, Department of Irrigation and Drainage, Faculty of Water and Soil Engineering, Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources. (In Persian)
  5. Tali Moghadam, A., Bastam, M., & Karbasi, A. R. (2012). Determination of optimal cultivation pattern of horticultural crops using game theory (Case study: Khorasan Razavi province), 8th Biennial Conference of Iranian Agricultural Economics, Shiraz.
  6. Tan, Q., & Zhang, T. (2018). Robust fractional programming approach for improving agricultural water-use efficiency under uncertainty, Journal of Hydrology, 564, 1110-1119.
  7. Tian, H., Lu, C., Pan, S., Yang, J., Miao, R., Ren, W., Yu, Q., Fu, B., Jin, F. F., Lu, Y., Melillo, J., Ouyang, Z., Oalm, C., & Reily, J. (2018). Optimizing resource use efficiencies in the food–energy–water nexus for sustainable agriculture: from conceptual model to decision support system, Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability, 33, 104-113.
  8. Torkamani, J., & Abdolahi Ezatabadi, M. (2005). Application of Compromise Planning in Rare Resources Management: A Case Study of Groundwater Resources in Rafsanjan. Agricultural Science and Techniques, 3: 43-54. (In Persian)
  9. Torkamani, J., & Sobouhi, M. (2004). Study of Risk Orientation of Farmers Using Risk-Agreed Planning. Iranian Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 3: 587-593. (In Persian)
  10. Umarusman, N . (2018). Fuzzy Goal Programming Problem Based on Minmax Approach for Optimal System Design. Alphanumeric Journal, 6 (1), 177-192.
  11. Wondimagegn, M. (2014). Crop mix and resource use pattern under risk: the case of smallholder farmers in eastern highlands of ethiopia. International Journal of Agriculture and Crop Sciences, 7 (5): 251-261.