Investigating the Effects of Social Welfare on Brain Drain in Developing Countries

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Lorestan University

2 Associate Professor, Lorestan University

3 Department of Economics, Faculty of Economics,Management and Administration Sciences, Semnan University, Semnan-Iran.

4 Assistant Professor of Economics, Grand Ayatollah Boroujerdi University


The study of the effects of social welfare on brain drain as a social phenomenon in the process of development and growth of countries has a decisive role and various aspects and areas in developing countries have always been affected by this category. One of the goals of societies in today's world is to increase the level of social welfare of individuals. The quality and quantity of life and the level of social welfare in countries is one of the most important criteria for development. Accordingly, one of the most important goals of economic planners is to increase social welfare as an important factor in order to attract elites in developed societies. On the other hand, countries with poor social welfare levels are witnessing brain drain and the migration of their educated people. In this study, we intend to investigate the effects of social welfare on brain drain during the years 2002-2018 and based on data from official economic statistics centers such as World Bank data and immigration data in developing countries. The econometric method used is the Generalized Moment of Method (GMM). The results show that the first brain drain and freedom of expression have a positive effect on brain drain from developing countries (countries of origin) to the United States of America (destination country) and social welfare, political stability, health and public health have a negative effect on brain drain. And has had elite migration. 


Main Subjects

1-    Abbasian, E. A., Moftakhri, A., & Nademi, Y. (2017). the nonlinear effects of oil revenues on social welfare in Iran. Journal of Social Welfare Quaterly, 17 (64), 71-39 (In Persian).
2-    Alaedini, P., & Emami, Y. (2005). International migration and poverty: The Iranian case. Journal of Social Welfare Quaterly, 5(18), 169-200 (In Persian).
3-    Ahadi, H.,  Nademi, Y., & Khochiany, R. (2019). oil rent and brain drain in the OPEC oil exporting countries.Iranian Journal of Energy Economics8(30), 1-21 (In Persian).
4-    Arrieta, O. A. D., Pammolli, F., & Petersen, A. M. (2017). Quantifying the negative impact of brain drain on the integration of European science. Science advances3(4), e1602232.
5-    Galiano, A., & Romero, J. G. (2018). Brain drain and income distribution. Journal of Economics124(3), 243-267.
6-    Guerreiro, J., Rebelo, S., & Teles, P. (2020). What is the optimal immigration policy? Migration, jobs, and welfare. Journal of Monetary Economics113, 61-87.
7-    Hasselbalch, J. A. (2019). Framing brain drain: between solidarity and skills in European labor mobility. Review of international political economy26(6), 1333-1360.
8-    Ha, W., Yi, J., & Zhang, J. (2016). Brain drain, brain gain, and economic growth in China. China Economic Review38, 322-337.
9-    Heidari, H., Davoodi, N., & Talebi, F. (2015). Macroeconomic effects and part of the migration of skilled and non-skilled labor in Iran. Quarterly Journal of Research and Planning in Higher Education, 22 (4), 42-25 (In Persian).
10-    Huber, P., & Oberdabernig, D. A. (2016). The impact of welfare benefits on natives' and immigrants' attitudes toward immigration. European journal of political economy44, 53-78.
11-    Kvartiuk, V., Petrick, M., Bavorova, M., Bednaříková, Z., & Ponkina, E. (2020). A brain drain in Russian agriculture? Migration sentiments among skilled Russian rural youth. Europe-Asia Studies72(8), 1352-1377.
12-    Latifi, Gh. R., Qarabaghi, H., Haj Ali Akbari, F., & Shami, R. (2017). Investigating the role of district planning on social welfare from the perspective of the people. Journal of Social Development and Welfare Planning, 8 (31), 1-24 (In Persian).
13-    Lodigiani, E., Marchiori, L., & Shen, I. L. (2016). Revisiting the brain drain literature with insights from a dynamic general equilibrium world model. The World Economy39(4), 557-573.
14-    Mansouri, S. A., & Afgheh, S. M. (2017). Investigating the interactions of freedom and governance on human development. Journal of Strategic Studies of Public Policy, 7 (25), 155-135 (In Persian).
15-    Mok, K. H., & Han, X. (2016). From ‘brain drain’to ‘brain bridging’: transnational higher education development and graduate employment in China. Journal of Higher Education Policy and Management38(3), 369-389.
16-    Mohaghegh Kamal, Seyed Hossein, Rafiei, Hassan, Sajjadi, Homeira, Abbasian, Ezatullah and Rahgozar, Mehdi (2013). Estimating the composite index of social welfare for the conditions of Iran. Journal of Social Welfare Quaterly, 14 (52), 32-7. (In Persian).
17-    Mountford, A. (1997). Can a brain drain be good for growth in the source economy?. Journal of development economics53(2), 287-303.
18-    Nannestad, P. (2004). Immigration as a challenge to the Danish welfare state?. European Journal of Political Economy20(3), 755-767.
19-    Nademi, Y., & Moftakhri, A. (2017). The optimal level of government and social welfare activities in Iran Nonlinear time series approach. Journal of Social Welfare Quaterly, 17(67), 9-35 (In Persian).
20-    Nikouyeh, M., Shirvani Naghani, M., Darvishi Se Talani, F., Bayat, R. A. (2019). Identify and prioritize multidisciplinary factors affecting the brain drain process. Majles & Rahbord, 27(104), 154-127(In Persian).
21-    Okoye, D. (2016). Can brain drain be good for human capital growth? Evidence from cross-country skill premiums and education costs. Economic Analysis and Policy49, 74-99.
22-    Pedraza, L. E. (2013). Brain drain social and political effects in Latin American countries. Revista Grafía-Cuaderno de trabajo de los profesores de la Facultad de Ciencias Humanas. Universidad Autónoma de Colombia10(2), 29-48.
23-    Pieńkowski, J. (2020). The impact of labour migration on the Ukrainian economy. European Economy-Discussion Papers 2015-, (123).
24-    Saluja, S., Rudolfson, N., Massenburg, B. B., Meara, J. G., & Shrime, M. G. (2020). The impact of physician migration on mortality in low and middle-income countries: an economic modelling study. BMJ global health5(1), e001535.
25-    Rostami Hosuri, H. (2014). The effect of skilled labor migration (brain drain) on poverty in developing countries. Quarterly Journal of Fiscal and Economic Policy, 2 (5), 104-93 (In Persian).
26-    Rostami, H. (2015). The effects of skilled labor migration on the labor market. Social, Economic, Scientific and Cultural Monthly of Work and Society, 190, 57-49 (In Persian).
27-    Schiff, M. (2018). Beneficial brain drain and non-migrants' welfare.
28-    Shahabadi, A., Salehi, M., & Hosseinidoust, S. E. (2020). The impact of competitiveness on brain drain, GMM Panel approach. Journal of the Knowledge Economy11(2), 558-573.
29-    Shahabadi, A., & Jamehbozorgi, A. (2014). The effect of economic, political and civil freedom on migration (by emphasizing on brain drain)Majles & Rahbord, 77 (21), 69-41  (In Persian).
32-    Shahabadi, A., & Salehi, M. (2019). The effect of high technology export development on brain drain in selected Middle Eastern and North African countries (MENA). Journal of Economic Research, 54 (3), 632-607 (In Persian).
33-    Sinha, C. (2017). International migration and welfare implications. South Asian Journal of Macroeconomics and Public Finance6(2), 209-229.
Vidal, J. P. (1998). The effect of emigration on human capital formation. Journal of population economics11(4), 589-600.