شدت یادگیری در بخش صنعت و اثرات آن بر عملکرد صنایع کارخانه‌ای ایران

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار اقتصاد دانشگاه پیام نور

2 استاد اقتصاد دانشگاه پیام نور

چکیده

در این مقاله شدت یادگیری به مفهوم میزان صرفه‌جویی در هزینه نیروی‌کار و رشد بهره‌وری در اثر تجربه، با استفاده از منحنی یادگیری اندازه‌گیری و اثرات آن بر عملکرد صنایع کارخانه‌ای ایران مورد ارزیابی قرار می‌گیرد. بدین منظور از داده‌های 130 صنعت فعال کد چهاررقمی ISIC ایران طی سال‌های 1392- 1375 استفاده شده تا اثرات یادگیری و میزان مزایای هزینه‌ای نیروی‌کار در اثر افزایش تجربه مورد بررسی قرار گیرد. نتایج پژوهش دلالت بر آن دارد که شیب منحنی یادگیری در تمامی زیر بخش‌های صنعت ایران مطابق انتظار منفی است. همچنین ضریب نرخ یادگیری در زیر بخش‌های صنعتی متفاوت بوده که این امر منجر به افزایش بهره‌وری و کاهش هزینه تولید محصول در بخش صنعت ایران شده است. البته این ضریب در بخش عمده‌ای از صنایع کمتر از متوسط شدت یادگیری در بخش صنعت ‌است. علاوه بر این اثر شدت یادگیری همانند بقیه متغیرهای مؤثر بر سودآوری مثبت و معنی‌دار است. بررسی‌های تکمیلی نیز مؤید آن است که در صنایع با ارزش‌افزوده بالا به دلیل استفاده از تکنولوژی برتر میزان یادگیری بالاتر از متوسط یادگیری در بخش صنعت است.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Learning Intensity and Its Effects on Performance of Iranian Manufacturing Industries

نویسندگان [English]

  • Samaneh Norani Azad 1
  • Farhad Khodadad Kashi 2
1 Assistent Professor of Economics, Payame Noor University
2 Professor of Economics, Payame Noor University
چکیده [English]

In this paper lerning intensity refers to cost-saving of labor force and productivity growth that associate with experience. This process measured by using learning curve. Moreover, this article sought to examine the effects of learning rate in Iran’s manufacturing industries performance. To meet this ends the data of 130, 4-digit industries over the periods of 1996-2013 were used to identify learning effects and the extent of cost advantage of labor force owing to increased experience. The results indicated that the learning curve in all sub-sectors of industry had a negative slope as expected. Also, there was different learning rate in sub-sectors of industry, so that differences of learning rate coefficient led to increased productivity and reduced the cost of production. Of course in the majority of industries this coefficient was less than the average intensity of learning in industrial sector. In addition, similar to other variables, the effect of learning intensity on profitability was positive and significant in Iranian industries. Also, further investigation showed that in industries with high added value, due to the use of superior technology, learning rate was higher than the average intensity of learning in Iran’s industries.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Learning intensity
  • Profitability rate
  • Productivity of labor force
  • Panel Data
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