عنوان مقاله [English]
Considerable empirical studies have been conducted to determine the relationship between corruption and economic growth, but these studies focused on the direct effects of corruption on economic growth and even more limited studies have been done on the impact of corruption on economic growth transition channels witch most of them just studied a specified channel. The main objective of present study was to evaluate the transition channels of corruption effect on economic growth simultaneously, in rentier and non-rentier economies and determine how their interactions on each other. To do this we used data of International Corruption Risk Guide (ICRG) index and Kaufman et al. (2000) corruption index (Graft) for 53 selected countries over the period 1996-2013 in this study. Also simultaneous equations 3SLS estimation method is used. The results indicate that, both types of corruption index has a negative impact on economic growth of the studied countries and impact transition through the channels of investment, government spending, political instability and economic openness are significant through both corruption index. Also, comparisons between rentier countries and non-rentier countries, shows that the effect of corruption on economic growth using two different corruption index is different, with both indices, the effects of corruption in rentier countries is bigger than non-rentier countries.
1. رهبر، فرهاد، میرزاوند، فضلالله، و زال پور، غلامرضا (1381). بازشناسی عارضه فساد مالی، ماهیت، گونهها، پیامدها و آموزههای تجربی. تهران، مؤسسه نشر جهاد.
2. صادقی، حسین، عصاری، عباس، و شقاقی شهری، وحید (1389). اندازهگیری فساد مالی در ایران با استفاده از منطق فازی (رویکرد اقتصادی). پژوهشنامه اقتصادی، 10(4)، 174-139.
3. صباحی، احمد، و ملک الساداتی، سیدسعید (1388). اثر کنترل فساد مالی بر رشد اقتصادی. 14(53)، 158-131.
4. صیادزاده، علی، و علمی، زهرا (1390). رابطه فساد و سرمایه اجتماعی در الگوهای رشد. فصلنامه علمی پژوهشی رفاه، 50(2)، 35-7.
Ades, A., and Di Tella, R. (1997). National champions and corruption: some unpleasant interventionist arithmetic. The Economic Journal, 107)443(, 1023-1042.
Aidt, T., Dutta, J., and Sena, V. (2008). Governance regimes, corruption and growth: theory and evidence. Journal of Comparative Economics, 36(2), 195-220.
Aisen, A., and Veiga, F. (2013). How does political instability affect economic growth? European Journal of political economy, 29(7), 151-167.
Alesina, A., and Wacziarg, R. (1998). Openness, country size and government. Journal of public Economics, 69(3), 305-321.
Al-Samarrai, S. (2006). Achieving education for all: how much does money matter? Journal of International Development, Vol. 18, 179-206.
Baldacci, E., Clements, B., Gupta, S., and Cui, Q. (2008). Social spending, human capital, and growth in developing countries. World Development. 36(8), 1317–1341.
Barro, R.(1991). Economic growth in a cross-section of countries. Quarterly Journal of Economics , 106(2), 43-407.
Barro, R., and Sala-i-Martin, X. (1995). Economic Growth. MIT Press.
Caselli, F. (1996). Reopening the convergence debate: a new look at cross-country growth empirics. Journal of Economic Growth, 1(3), 363-89.
De Vaal, A., and Ebben, W. (2011). Institutions and the relationship between corruption and economic growth. Rev. Dev. Econ., 15, 108–123.
Dreher, A., and Herzfeld, T. (2005). The Economic costs of corruption: a survey and new evidence. Working Paper 0506001, Public Economics, Econ WPA
Dzhumashev, R. (2014). Corruption and growth: the role of governance, public spending, and economic development. Economic Modelling, 37, 202-215.
Easterly, W., and Levine, R. (1997). Africa's growth tragedy: policies and ethnic divisions. Quarterly Journal of Economics, 112(4), 1203-1250.
Ebben, W., and Vaal, A. (2009). Institutions and the relation between corruption and economic growth. NiCE Working Paper, 09-104.
El Anshasy, A., and Katsaiti, M. (2013). Natural resources and fiscal performance: Does good governance matter? Journal of Macroeconomics, 37, 285-298.
Elliott, K.A. (1997). Corruption as an international policy problem: overview and recommendations. Institute of International Economics (U.S.), 175-181.
Gupta, S., Davoodi, H.R., and Tiongson, E.R. (2001). Corruption and the provision of health care and education services. The Political Economy of Corruption, ed. by A.K. Jain, London: Routledge, 111-141.
Gupta, S., Verhoeven, M., and Tiongson, E. R. (2002). The effectiveness of government spending on education and health care in developing and transition economies. European Journal of Political Economy. 18, 717-737.
Gylfason, T. (2001). Natural resource and economic growth: what is the connection? CESifo Working Paper, No 530.
Haque, M.E., and Kneller R. (2008). Public investment and growth: the role of corruption. Centre for Growth and Business Cycle Research Discussion Paper Series 98, Economics, Univeristy of Manchester.
Heckelman, J.C., and Powell, B. (2010). Corruption and the institutional environment for growth. Comparative Economic Studies, 52(3), 351-378.
Hessami, Z. (2014). Political corruption, public procurement, and budget composition: Theory and evidence from OECD countries. European Journal of political economy, 34, 372-389.
Jain, A. k. (2001). Corruption: A review. Journal of Economic Surveys, 15(1), 71-121.
Johnson, S., Kaufmann, D., McMillan, J., and Woodruff, C. (2000). Why do firms hide? Bribes and unofficial activity after communism. Journal of Public Economics, 76, 95-520.
Kaufmann, D., and Wei, S.J. (2000). does 'grease money' speed up the wheels of commerce? IMF Working Papers, NO 00/64.
Kaufmann, D., Kray, A., and Zoido-Lobaton, P. (1999). Governance matters: World Bank policy research. Working Paper, No 2196.
Krueger, A.O. (1974). The political economy of the rent-seeking society. The American Economic Review. 64(3), 291-303.
Lambsdorff, J.G. (1999). Corruption in international research; a review. Transparency International Working Paper, Berlin. www.Transparency.de [10.11.00].
Levine, Ross, and Renelt, D. (1992). A sensitivity analysis of cross-country growth regressions. American Economics Review, 82(4): 942-63.
Mahdavy, H. (1970). The patterns and problems of economic development in rentier states: the case of Iran. life, 1000(1).
Mankiw, G., Romer, D., and Weil, D. (1990). A Contribution to the empirics of economic growth. NBER Working Paper No. 3541.
Marhubi, F. A. (2000). Corruption and inflation. Economics Letters, 66 (2), 199-202.
Mauro, P. (1995). Corruption and growth. Quarterly Journal of Economics, 110(3), 681-712.
Mauro, P. (1998). Corruption and the composition of government expenditure. Journal of Public economics, 69(2), 263-279.
Mauro, P. (2004). The Persistence of corruption and slow economic growth. IMF staff papers, 51(1), 1-18.
Mendez, F., and Sepulveda, F. (2006). Corruption, growth and political regimes: cross country evidence. European Journal of Political Economy, 22(1), 82-98.
Méon, P.G., and Weill, L. (2010). Is corruption efficient grease? World Development, 38(3), 244-259.
Mo, P.H. (2001). Corruption and economic growth. Journal of Comparative Economics, 29, 66-79.
Montinola, G., and Jackman, R. W. (2002). Sources of corruption: a cross country study. British Journal of Political Science, 32, 147–170.
Mulloy, P. (1999). Statement on corruption delivered by assistant secretary of commerce. OSCE Review Conference, Istanbul.
Pellegrini, L. (2011). The effect of corruption on growth and its transmission channels. In Pellegrini, L. (2011), Corruption, development and the environment, Chapter 4, 53-74, Springer.
4Pellegrini, L., and Gerlagh, R. (2004). Corruption's effect on growth and its transmission channels. Kyklos, 57(3), Pp. 429-56.
Rajeev, K.G., and Nelson, A. (2012). Corruption and government size: a disaggregated analysis. Journal of Business and Economics, 28(1), 107-120.
Rajkumar, A.S., and Swaroop, V. (2008). Public spending and outcomes: does governance matter? Journal of Development Economics, 86(1), 96-111.
Rijckeghem, C.V., and Weder, B. (1997). Corruption and the rate of temptation: do low wages in the civil service cause corruption? IMF Working Paper, No WP/97/73.
Rothstein, B., and Uslaner, EM. (2005). All for all: equality, corruption, and social trust. World politics, Cambridge Univ Press
Serra, D. (2006). Empirical determinants of corruption: a sensitivity analysis. Journal of Public Choice, 126(1/2), 225-256.
Shleifer, A., and Vishny, R.W. (1993). Corruption. The Quarterly Journal of Economics, 108(3), 599-617.
Southgate, D., Salazar-Canelos P, Camacho-Saa, C., and Stewart, R. (2000). Markets, institutions, and forestry: the consequences of timber trade liberalization in Ecuador. World Development, 28(11):2005-2012.
Stavros, K. (2006). The shadow economy and corruption in Greecesouth-Eastern Europe. Journal of Economics, 1, 61-80.
Swaleheen, M. (2012). Curbing corruption for higher growth: The importance of persistence. Journal of Economics letters, 116, 255-257.
Tanzi, V., and Davoodi, H. (1997). Corruption public investment and growth. IMF Working Paper, No 97/139, Washington D.C.
Tavares, J., and Wacziarg, R. (2001). How democracy affects growth. European Economic Review, 45(8), 1341-78.
Tsani, S. (2013). Natural resources, governance and institutional quality: The role of resource funds. Journal of Resources Policy, 38, 191-195.
UNESCO (2002). Ethics and corruption in education. Results from the Expert Workshop (Paris, France, November 28-29, 2001). Policy Forum on Education.
Wacziarg, R. (2001). Measuring the dynamic gains from trade. World Bank Economic Review, 15(3), 393-429.
Wacziarg, R., and Welch, K.H. (2008). Trade liberalization and growth: new evidence. NBER Working Paper, No 10152.
World Bank (1997). Helping countries combat corruption: the role of the World Bank. P. 8. The World Bank, Washington D.C.