درونزایی در برآورد مدل کار کودک با داده‌های سانسورشده؛ با بکارگیری مدل توبیت با متغیر ابزاری

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی اقتصادسنجی دانشگاه مازندران

2 دانشیار اقتصاد دانشگاه مازندران

3 دانشیار اقتصاد دانشگاه علامه طباطبایی

چکیده

در ادبیات کار شایسته، از میان برداشتن کار کودک یکی از ارکان اساسی حقوق کار است. بر اساس کنوانسیون 138 سازمان بین‌المللی کار، هرگونه کاری که می‌تواند به سلامت جسم، ذهن و اخلاقی کودک آسیب بزند یا امنیت اخلاقی او را تهدید کند، کار کودک محسوب شده و نباید توسط کودکان زیر 18 سال انجام شود. در بسیاری از کشورهای در حال توسعه، فقر شدید و شرایط نامناسب بازار کار، تعداد قابل توجهی از خانوارها را ناچار به پذیرش مشارکت کودکان در بازار کار می‌کند. در این مقاله اثر ویژگی‌های خانوار بر احتمال و میزان کار کودک مورد بررسی قرار می‌گیرد. برای این منظور ویژگی‌های کودک، مادر، سرپرست و خانوار به عنوان متغیرهای توضیحی لحاظ شده‌اند. در این تحقیق از مدل توبیت با متغیر ابزاری استفاده شده است. مشارکت کودک در ایجاد درآمد برای خانوار مدل توبیت را با مشکل درونزایی روبرو می‌کند، در نتیجه از درآمد خالص سرپرست خانوار به عنوان متغیر ابزاری استفاده شده است. در این تحقیق از داده‌های خام هزینه – درآمد خانوار در سال 1392 استفاده شده است. گروه مورد بررسی کودکان زیر 18 سال و بالای 6 سال هستند. در مجموع نزدیک به 25 هزار کودک مورد بررسی قرار گرفته‌اند. بر اساس نتایج، پسر بودن تأثیر معنی‌دار و مستقیمی در افزایش ساعات کار و احتمال کار کودک دارد. علاوه ‌بر آن فعال بودن و شاغل بودن سرپرست خانوار و افزایش سطح تحصیلات مادر باعث کاهش کار کودک می‌شود. 

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Endogeneity in Estimating the Child Labor Model with Censored Data: An IV-TOBIT Approach

نویسندگان [English]

  • Sahand Ebrahimpour Faez 1
  • Zahra Karimi Moughari 2
  • Teimour Mohammadi 3
1 PhD Candidate in Econometrics, University of Mazandaran
2 Associate Professor of Economics, University of Mazandaran
3 Associate Professor of Economics, Alameh Tabatabaie University
چکیده [English]

In the decent work literature abolishing child labor is one of the main elements of rights at work. According to the convention 138 of the International Labor Organization any form of work that harms physical mental or moral wellbeing of the child or threatens the child’s morality is considered child labor and must not be done by any children less than 18 years of age. However in many developing countries due to extreme poverty and unfavorable labor market conditions a considerable number of households are obligated to be content with their children’s participation in the labor market. In this paper the effects of the household’s characteristics on the probability and the amount of child labor is studied. In order to do so the characteristics of the child mother head of the household and the household are considered as the explaining variables. The model applied in this study is an IV-TOBIT regression model. The child’s participation in income yielding activities for the household results in an endogeneity bias in the TOBIT model. Therefore the head of the household’s net income is used as an Instrumental Variable. The data in this study are extracted from the Households’ Income–Expenditure Survey of the year 2013. The group under study are the children between 6 and 18 years of age. Near 25 thousand children were studied. According to the results being male has a significant positive effect on the increase in the hours of work done by a child and its probability. Furthermore the head’s activity status and employment status and higher education levels of the mother decrease child labor.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Child labor
  • Censored data
  • Instrumental variables
  • Tobit regressions
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